NEPHROLOGY

Other forms of secondary hypertension

Jul 23, 2019 by in NEPHROLOGY Comments Off on Other forms of secondary hypertension

1. Besides renovascular and the traditional endocrine causes of hypertension, what are eight uncommon, but important, causes of secondary hypertension? • Obstructive sleep apnea (typically causing hyperaldosteronism) • Drug-induced hypertension…

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Volume disorders and assessment

Jul 23, 2019 by in NEPHROLOGY Comments Off on Volume disorders and assessment

Volume 1. What is meant by volume? Physicians use the terms “volume” and “extracellular fluid volume” interchangeably. Because sodium is largely restricted to the extracellular fluid (ECF), total body sodium…

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Pharmacologic treatment of hypertension

Jul 23, 2019 by in NEPHROLOGY Comments Off on Pharmacologic treatment of hypertension

1. When is pharmacologic treatment of hypertension indicated? When an individual’s blood pressure (BP) does not fall below goal after a suitable period of intensive lifestyle modifications, antihypertensive drug therapy…

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Nonpharmacologic treatment of hypertension

Jul 23, 2019 by in NEPHROLOGY Comments Off on Nonpharmacologic treatment of hypertension

1. What nonpharmacologic strategies can be used to treat hypertension? Several nonpharmacologic strategies are available to improve blood pressure control among essential hypertensive patients. By extension, similar strategies may be…

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Hypertensive emergencies

Jul 23, 2019 by in NEPHROLOGY Comments Off on Hypertensive emergencies

1. How does a “hypertensive emergency” differ from “hypertensive urgency”? A “hypertensive emergency” is a clinical situation in which severely elevated blood pressure is associated with acute, progressive target-organ damage…

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Resistant hypertension

Jul 23, 2019 by in NEPHROLOGY Comments Off on Resistant hypertension

1. What is resistant hypertension (RH)? Is it the same as refractory hypertension? Hypertension is considered resistant if the blood pressure (BP) cannot be reduced below target levels ( Box…

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Endocrine hypertension

Jul 23, 2019 by in NEPHROLOGY Comments Off on Endocrine hypertension

Hyperaldosteronism 1. What is hyperaldosteronism? Hyperaldosteronism is a disorder with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms resulting from excessive effects of aldosterone or a similar mineralocorticoid agent, which typically…

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Renovascular disease

Jul 23, 2019 by in NEPHROLOGY Comments Off on Renovascular disease

1. What clinical syndromes are associated with renal artery stenosis? Renovascular hypertension, progressive loss of kidney function from ischemic nephropathy, and recurrent episodes of flash pulmonary edema (meaning acute/abrupt onset…

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Kidney parenchymal hypertension

Jul 23, 2019 by in NEPHROLOGY Comments Off on Kidney parenchymal hypertension

1. What is the epidemiology of hypertension? Hypertension remains a common disease among Americans. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey reveal that 29% of Americans are hypertensive;…

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Primary hypertension

Jul 23, 2019 by in NEPHROLOGY Comments Off on Primary hypertension

1. How is hypertension defined and classified? The Eighth Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (Joint National Committee 8), published…

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