NEPHROLOGY

Nephrology beginnings

Jul 23, 2019 by in NEPHROLOGY Comments Off on Nephrology beginnings

1. Why the history of nephrology? “To understand a science it is necessary to know its history,” said August Comte (1798–1857), founder of modern sociology. Rooted in sociology, this saying…

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Metabolic acidosis

Jul 23, 2019 by in NEPHROLOGY Comments Off on Metabolic acidosis

Metabolic acidosis The “secrets” of metabolic acidosis will be the emphasis of this chapter, given the breadth of this topic. This chapter is parsed into, first, a brief overview of…

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Metabolic alkalosis

Jul 23, 2019 by in NEPHROLOGY Comments Off on Metabolic alkalosis

Introduction and physiology 1. What is metabolic alkalosis? The metabolic alkaloses represent a heterogeneous group of disorders that have in common a high concentration of plasma bicarbonate [HCO 3 −…

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Disorders of magnesium metabolism

Jul 23, 2019 by in NEPHROLOGY Comments Off on Disorders of magnesium metabolism

Normal magnesium physiology 1. How is magnesium measured? The molecular weight of magnesium is 24.3 g/mol, with a 2+ valence (Mg2+). The normal serum magnesium level is 0.7 to 0.85…

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Palliative care in nephrology

Jul 23, 2019 by in NEPHROLOGY Comments Off on Palliative care in nephrology

Overview of palliative care and role in nephrology care 1. What is palliative care? Palliative care is specialized care that treats the symptoms and burdens associated with serious illness. Palliative…

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Disorders of phosphorus metabolism

Jul 23, 2019 by in NEPHROLOGY Comments Off on Disorders of phosphorus metabolism

Normal phosphorus physiology 1. What is the difference between phosphate and phosphorus and how are they measured in clinical medicine? Phosphorus is a critical element in physiology. Phosphorus is an…

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Hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia

Jul 23, 2019 by in NEPHROLOGY Comments Off on Hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia

1. What is calcium homeostasis? Calcium homeostasis refers to the regulation of the calcium concentration in the extracellular fluid. Normal serum calcium concentration varies between laboratories, but is usually 8.5…

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Dysnatremias

Jul 23, 2019 by in NEPHROLOGY Comments Off on Dysnatremias

1. What are dysnatremias? The term dysnatremia applies when an aberration in plasma sodium concentration is present. Changes in plasma sodium concentration can result in fluid shifts between the intra-…

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Hypokalemia and hyperkalemia

Jul 23, 2019 by in NEPHROLOGY Comments Off on Hypokalemia and hyperkalemia

1. Describe normal potassium balance. Approximately 98% of total body potassium resides inside cells, making it the most abundant cation in the intracellular fluid (ICF). The total body stores approximately…

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Genetic disorders of sodium transport

Jul 23, 2019 by in NEPHROLOGY Comments Off on Genetic disorders of sodium transport

1. What is the difference between mendelian (or monogenic) forms of hypertension and essential hypertension? Essential hypertension has a multifactorial etiology, including demographic and environmental (dietary) factors, and genetic predisposition,…

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