NEPHROLOGY

Kidney Disease

Oct 20, 2020 by in NEPHROLOGY Comments Off on Kidney Disease

Classification Systolic BP (mmHg) Diastolic BP (mmHg) Normal <120 AND <80 Prehypertension 120–139 OR 80–89 Stage I HTN 140–159 OR 90–99 Stage II HTN ≥160 OR ≥100 BP classification was…

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17. Hemodialysis

Oct 20, 2020 by in NEPHROLOGY Comments Off on 17. Hemodialysis

Fig. 17.1 Diffusion across a semipermeable membrane. The driving force for solute diffusion is the transmembrane concentration gradient. Small solutes with higher concentrations in the blood compartment, such as potassium,…

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Kidney Disease

Oct 20, 2020 by in NEPHROLOGY Comments Off on Kidney Disease

Condition Urinary ACR (mg/g) Terms Normoalbuminuria <30 Normally to mildly increased Microalbuminuria 30–300 Moderately increased Macroalbuminuria/overt proteinuria >300 Severely increased ACR albumin-to-creatinine ratio Proteinuria, first characterized by Kimmelstiel and Wilson…

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Dialysis

Oct 20, 2020 by in NEPHROLOGY Comments Off on Dialysis

Fig. 18.1 Diffusion is driven by the concentration gradient over the membrane Fig. 18.2 Ultrafiltration driven by the osmotic agent over the membrane Lactate dialysates with different concentrations of glucose,…

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Image Techniques in Chronic Kidney Disease

Oct 20, 2020 by in NEPHROLOGY Comments Off on Image Techniques in Chronic Kidney Disease

Fig. 8.1 Clinical usage of magnetic resonance imaging. DCE dynamic contrast-enhanced; ASL arterial spin labeling; DWI diffusion-weighted imaging; DTI diffusion tensor imaging; BOLD blood oxygen level-dependent; MRE magnetic resonance elastography;…

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19. Transplantation

Oct 20, 2020 by in NEPHROLOGY Comments Off on 19. Transplantation

Potential advantages • Improved graft survival for high-risk patients • Onset of first rejection is delayed • Period of delayed graft function may be foreshortened • May allow for less aggressive maintenance regimen Potential…

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Timing and Modality Option for Renal Replacement Therapy

Oct 20, 2020 by in NEPHROLOGY Comments Off on Timing and Modality Option for Renal Replacement Therapy

Steps in calculation Example of calculation or formula Calculate the urea clearance for a 24-h period Urea clearance = Uurea/Purea ∗ urine volume/1440 = Urea mL/min Determine urea clearance in liters, which is equivalent…

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and Chronic Kidney Disease

Oct 20, 2020 by in NEPHROLOGY Comments Off on and Chronic Kidney Disease

Fig. 6.1 Prevalence of chronic kidney disease by age group in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 1988–1994 and 1999–2004. (Reproduced with permission from Coresh et al….

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in Chronic Kidney Disease

Oct 20, 2020 by in NEPHROLOGY Comments Off on in Chronic Kidney Disease

Pharmacokinetic process Changes in hemodialysis Absorption Increased absorption mediated by: • Paracellular leakage • Decreased efflux transporter activity • Decreased P450 activity Distribution Increased free drug concentration mediated by: • Decreased albumin concentration • Uremic…

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