Inflammatory Bowel Disease



10.1055/b-0034-91859

Inflammatory Bowel Disease


Of the inflammatory bowel diseases, diverticulitis and chronic inflammatory bowel diseases are the most common causes of stenotic changes to the bowel wall.



CT colonography is generally contraindicated in patients with acute inflammatory bowel disease, because of the high risk of perforation and because it is doubtful what added diagnostic value it provides.


Quite apart from those considerations, CT colonography is also not indicated for other inflammatory diseases of the colon such as infectious colitis, graft-versus-host disease, radiation colitis, and ischemic colitis.


In the large bowel, inflammatory reactions generally lead initially to thickening of the wall (Fig. 4.85), which is associated with increased perfusion and hence increased contrast enhancement. The various types of colitis differ with regard to their primary location, pattern of involvement, and course of extracolonic involvement and potential complications.


Examination technique. Limited data are available on the usefulness of fecal tagging in inflammatory bowel disease. However, since it generally helps to differentiate residual feces from colonic lesions, it is expected to be useful. Because of the increased risk of perforation, tagging protocols using barium should be avoided and bowel insufflation should be performed with caution. In unclear cases an unenhanced low-dose scan can be performed before insufflation is started to provide information about the presence of acute inflammatory changes which would preclude any distention. Intravenous administration of a contrast medium is recommended for the evaluation of inflammatory changes in the colonic wall and the pericolonic tissues. The primary evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease is done on the 2D views. These allow the bowel wall to be evaluated together with the accompanying pericolic inflammation with involvement of the fatty tissue, vessels, and lymph nodes. Endoluminal 3D views play a lesser role, but they can enable visualization of typical mucosal changes such as a cobblestone pattern or inflammatory pseudopolyps. Global 3D views are suitable for depicting the extent and distribution of morphological changes in the colon such as stenoses or loss of haustration.

Inflammatory thickening of the bowel wall on CT colonography. The axial 2D view shows mild wall thickening of the well-distended descending colon (arrow). The wall of the unaffected ascending colon is of normal thickness (arrowhead).
Contained perforation in sigmoid diverticulitis. The coronal MPR shows fistula formation in the perisigmoid fat tissue with a small extraluminal pocket of air (arrow). (Warning: This should not be confused with a “normal” air-filled diverticulum.)


Diverticulitis


Contraindications and indications. Inflammation of one or more diverticula leads to symptomatic diverticulitis, which in two-thirds of patients is localized to the sigmoid colon. Conventional abdominal CT, without distension of the colon, is the most commonly used imaging modality for the diagnosis of acute diverticulitis. CT colonography does not add substantial diagnostic benefits in its evaluation; the acute colonic changes of the bowel wall may be readily observed without colonic distension and in 2D views. Moreover, distending the colon can cause it to perforate, because of the acute inflammatory changes to the wall (Fig. 4.86). CT colonography is thus contraindicated for diagnosing acute diverticulitis.


However, in chronic diverticulitis without any clinical signs of acute inflammation (at least 4–6 weeks after an acute episode), CT colonography may be performed for the assessment of postinflammatory stenotic changes and evaluation of the prestenotic colon.


Morphology. Significant 2D findings in chronic diverticulitis include mild to moderate thickening and cone-shaped stenosis of the wall affecting a relatively long bowel segment (usually >10 cm) which transitions gradually—that is, without shoulder formation—to the level of the unaffected bowel wall (Fig. 4.87a, b). Air- or fluid-filled diverticula are often detected in the affected and adjacent unaffected bowel segments (Fig. 4.87a, c). After administration of an intravenous contrast agent, the thickened bowel wall demonstrates increased enhancement. Depending on the degree of inflammatory activity, there may also be pericolic fat stranding and fluid at the root of the mesentery. The intraluminal appearance is nonspecific. Usually, along with diverticula, there are annular symmetrical or asymmetrical stenotic changes. Possible complications include pericolic abscess, contained perforation, hemorrhage, fistula formation, and postinflammatory stenosis (Fig. 4.88).


Differential diagnosis. The most important differential diagnosis is colorectal carcinoma. Unlike diverticulitis, colorectal carcinoma exhibits marked focal thickening of the wall, usually involving a relatively short segment of the colon (less than 5 cm), with shoulder formation at the transition to the normal colonic wall, pericolic fat infiltration, and locoregional lymphadenopathy (see Fig. 4.78).


Focal diverticulitis. If only a single diverticulum or a small number of diverticula are affected, this is referred to as focal diverticulitis or inflammatory pseudotumor (Fig. 4.89). In focal diverticulitis there is circumscribed, moderately edematous thickening of the wall with marked enhancement after intravenous administration of a contrast agent. Isolated stool-filled or contrast-filled diverticula are also often found in the center of the affected region. Fat stranding occurs in the surrounding fat tissue, and endoluminal images show a nonspecific mass-like endoluminal filling defect.

Chronic sigmoid diverticulitis with stenosis of a long bowel segment. a The curved planar reconstruction (CPR) of the sigmoid colon reveals thickening of a long segment of bowel (arrow) with gradual transition to normal colon and a few diverticula (arrowhead). There is no inflammatory infiltration of the surrounding fat tissue which would suggest an acute inflammatory episode. b The global 3D view shows the gradual stenosis affecting a long bowel segment with an irregular, serrated contour and severe narrowing of the lumen (arrow). c Chronic sigmoid diverticulitis with high-degree stenosis (verified on biopsy). An axial 2D view shows severe circumferentially stenosing thickening of the sigmoid wall (arrow). The diagnosis of diverticulitis is supported by the presence of several diverticula filled with tagged fluid as well as known inflammatory episodes from the patient′s medical history. However, the involvement of only a short segment and the abrupt proximal shoulder of the stenosis (arrowheads) may suggest a neoplastic origin.
Extensive sigmoid diverticulitis with development of fistulae between sigmoid loops and the urinary bladder. The coronal MPR shows extensive edematous wall thickening in the sigmoid colon. There is inflammatory infiltration of the pericolic fat tissue and formation of fistulae between the sigmoid loops and urinary bladder (arrow). Air in the urinary bladder (not shown here) is a typical sign seen at CT.


Diagnostic Criteria at CT Colonography


Chronic Diverticulitis:




  • 2D: Mild thickening of the bowel wall gradually transitioning to the unaffected bowel wall



  • 2D, 3D: Presence of diverticula



  • 2D, 3D: Cone-shaped stenosis affecting a relatively long segment of the bowel, typically without proximal/distal abrupt shoulder formation (overhanging edges at the transition to normal bowel)



  • 2D: Contrast enhancement of the affected colonic segment



  • 2D: Fluid collections at the mesenteric root



  • 2D: Pericolic fat stranding



  • 3D: Nonspecific symmetrical or asymmetrical stenosis



  • Important differential diagnosis: colorectal carcinoma



Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease


Indications. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease are the most common and most important forms of chronic inflammatory bowel disease. The role of CT colonography in the evaluation of these entities is currently not well established. CT colonography, however, is less helpful in the detection and diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease than for the evaluation of chronic changes occurring over the course of disease, such as stenoses that cannot be passed with an endoscope. In addition, the 2D views in CT colonography allow assessment of the extracolonic extent of inflammatory bowel disease as well as potential complications.

Focal diverticulitis: short-term follow-up. a The coronal MPR shows a diverticulum (arrow) impacted with hyperdense material (arrow). There is significant inflammatory reaction of the pericolic fat tissue. b The sagittal MPR better depicts the circumscribed inflammation of this diverticulum (arrow), with regional edematous wall thickening and accompanying stranding of adjacent fat tissue. Just dorsal to the diverticulum, the enhancing external iliac artery is seen. c Follow-up 6 weeks later shows the diverticulum impacted with residual hyperdense material (arrow). The inflammatory changes have completely resolved.


Ulcerative Colitis


Ulcerative colitis is restricted to the mucosa and submucosa of the colon. Beginning in the rectum, the inflammation spreads contiguously to the more proximal bowel segments. The disease can affect part or all of the colon (pancolitis). Backwash ileitis, in which there is involvement of the terminal ileum, occurs in 10%–40% of patients. Only limited data are available on the usefulness of CT colonography in the evaluation of ulcerative colitis; only a few centers perform CT colonography in patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease.


Early-stage disease. The subtle inflammatory mucosal changes seen on barium enema studies in the early stages of ulcerative colitis, such as granular wall changes or small punctate ulcerations, are barely visible on CT colonography. Despite the excellent spatial resolution of CT colonography, it is still inadequate for reliable detection of such subtle mucosal changes.


Advanced disease. In advanced stages there is hyperemia and submucosal edema of the bowel wall. In acute disease, in particular, computed tomography shows thickening and stratification (visualization of the layers) of the bowel wall, known as the “target sign” (caused by edematous swelling of the submucosa with depiction of the muscularis propria). Stratification is nonspecific, however, and is also found in other forms of colitis. Two-dimensional views show continuous thickening of the bowel wall, usually affecting a relatively long segment (Fig. 4.90). If an intravenous contrast agent is administered, there is marked mucosal enhancement of the bowel wall. There is usually a continuous transition from the affected colonic wall to unaffected segments without any abrupt step-offs. Because of the bowel distension, the bowel wall thickening and stratification appear milder on CT colonography than on standard abdominal CT scans, where the colon is not distended. Wall thickening can lead to a tubular “lead pipe appearance” with loss of the semilunar folds and narrowing of the colon. As disease progresses, endoluminal 3D views show a diffuse, coarsely granular wall contour, which should not be confused with image noise typical of a low-dose scan (see Fig. 4.9). There are also ulcerations of varying severity, and inflammatory pseudopolyps develop. On 2D views, there may be a relatively smooth outer margin of the affected colonic wall since the disease is limited to the mucosa and submucosa. Typically, the changes affecting the bowel wall in ulcerative colitis are associated with increased paracolic vascularity and mild locoregional lymph node enlargement. Unlike in Crohn disease, abscesses and fistulous tracts are rare.


Complications. In acute stages of ulcerative colitis, CT colonography is generally contraindicated because of the increased risk of complications. Acute ulcerative colitis is a known predisposing factor for colonic perforation. Distension of the colon can lead to intramural laceration or perforation of the bowel wall. In patients with ulcerative colitis, the decision to perform CT colonography should therefore be extremely carefully weighed in terms of the potential benefit and associated risks (e.g., if conventional colonoscopy is incomplete or inconclusive and the evaluation of the colon is deemed necessary). In uncertain cases, an unenhanced low-dose scan performed before insufflation can provide information about the extent and severity of inflammatory changes. Caution should be exercised during bowel distension.


The most severe acute complication of ulcerative colitis is toxic megacolon, which affects 5% of patients and involves a risk of perforation and peritonitis (Fig. 4.91).

Ulcerative colitis with involvement of the left colon. a The endoluminal 3D view shows loss of haustration in the descending colon and a granular wall surface (differential diagnosis: image noise on a low-dose scan). A 2D view can assist differentiation. b The axial contrast-enhanced 2D image shows slight thickening of the wall of the well-distended descending colon and transverse colon (arrowheads). c The corresponding sagittal MPR shows continuous wall thickening in a long segment of the descending colon in ulcerative colitis.
Toxic megacolon: absolute contraindication for CT colonography. The abdominal CT was performed without air insufflation. a The axial contrast-enhanced CT image shows a megacolon with pathological bowel distension. There is significant wall thickening with extensive ulcerations. b The endoluminal 3D view shows an extremely irregular mucosal surface with pseudopolyps and ulcerations.


Because of the high risk of perforation, acute ulcerative colitis and toxic megacolon are absolute contraindications for insufflation with either air or carbon dioxide.

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Jun 26, 2020 | Posted by in GASTROENTEROLOGY | Comments Off on Inflammatory Bowel Disease
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