© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015David A. Schulsinger (ed.)Kidney Stone Disease10.1007/978-3-319-12105-5_5
5. Facts and Figures: Stones by the Numbers!
Department of Urology, Stony Brook Medicine, Stony Brook, NY, USA
David A. Schulsinger
Simple Stone Facts
1 % of all stones in adult patients are cystine.
2 liters of urine production per day is recommended for stone prevention.
3rd most common disorder of the urinary tract is stones.
4 most common stones are calcium, uric acid, cystine and struvite.
5–10 % of all stones are uric acid stones.
6 weeks is adequate time for most stones that will pass to do so.
7 % of women will have a stone.
8 mm stones have a 20 % chance of spontaneous passage.
9 out of 10 patients will be stone free after having ureteroscopy for a ureteral stone.
10–12 % lifetime risk for stones in industrialized countries.
When it comes to kidney stones numbers play an important role. We are often faced with difficult questions like, “will my stone pass”? When will my stone pass? What happens if I do nothing? Am I a time bomb waiting for my stone to pass? Why am I making stones? What surgery is best for me?
The truth is we do not have all the answers to these questions. Even though some of these questions may be difficult to answer, to tell patients that we do not have a crystal ball and that we cannot predict the future are not acceptable answers. What we can offer patients is the knowledge gathered from years of research, clinical studies, personal experience, and anecdotal evidence to best answer these difficult questions.
With all of our current knowledge about stone, we still have more to learn. The prevalence of stones does appear to be increasing and the gender gap is narrowing. What is the reason for this? Among other factors, environmental changes, diet, and obesity rates will all continue be studied to guide patients and medical professionals in the future.
Like snowflakes, no two kidney stones are alike and therefore may behave differently. If you are unlucky enough to be a repeat stone former then personal experience is an important factor in determining how to best manage your stone and should always be taken into consideration by your physician. Other factors that play a major role in stone decision making are size, location, shape, texture and composition of the stone.
In this chapter, you will find facts and figures to help guide you along your personal stone experience. In addition, you will be presented with options to consider to prevent stone recurrences and the means to modify your entire stone experience. Remember if you have had a stone you are not alone. Millions of others have felt your pain. Their experiences are what will help you to make your difficult decisions and potentially prevent stone formation in the future. Hopefully you will find solace knowing that your experience may help others in the future with their decision making.
1 – 1 stone passage is all you need to have to know you don’t want another.
1 – Stones account for 1 % of all hospital admissions.
1 – 1–2 % of all stones are cystine stones.
2 – Producing 2 liters of urine per day will decrease stone recurrence.
2 – Stones account for over two billion in medical cost annually.
2 – Almost two million out-patient visits for stones annually.
2 – PCNL is recommended for stones >2 cm.
3 – Stones are the third most common disorder of the urinary tract, behind urinary tract infections and prostate conditions.
4 – 4 most common stone types are calcium, uric acid, struvite and cystine.
4 – Stones <4 mm have and 80 % chance of spontaneous passage.
5 – Most stones <5 mm will pass spontaneously.
5 – Urine Ph < 5.5 often associated with uric acid stones.
5 – 5 % of all stones in children are cystine.
5 – 5–10 % of all stones are uric acid stones.
6 – Vitamin B6 can be used to treat hyperoxaluria.
6 – Most stones that pass do so within 6 weeks of symptoms.
7 – Urine Ph > 7 often associated with calcium phosphate and struvite stones.
7 – 7 % of women will have a stone.
8 – 8 mm stones have a 20 % chance of spontaneous passage.
8 – 8 % of stones contain uric acid.
10 – Stones larger than 10 mm are unlikely to pass spontaneously.
10 – Stones in the upper ureter at time of symptoms have a 10 % chance of spontaneous passage.
10 – 10–20 % of all kidney stones require surgical removal.
10 – 10–25 % of children with stones have an anatomical anomaly.
10 – 10–15 % of stones are struvite stones.
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