Tumors of the biliary tract

Chapter 34 Tumors of the biliary tract





Benign Tumors of the Gallbladder








Carcinoma of the Gallbladder




Etiology


Risk factors for gallbladder carcinoma:












Pathology and staging






TABLE 34.1 American Joint Commission on Cancer (tumor, node, metastasis [TMN]) staging: summary for carcinoma of the gallbladder
























Stage 0 Carcinoma in situ (T0)
Stage I (T1N0M0) Tumor invades lamina propria (T1a) or muscular layer (T1b)
Stage II (T2N0M0) Tumor invades perimuscular connective tissue; no extension beyond serosa or into liver (T2)
Stage IIIA (T3N0M0) Tumor perforates the serosa (visceral peritoneum) and/or directly invades the liver and/or one other adjacent organ, such as stomach, duodenum, colon, pancreas, or extrahepatic bile ducts (T3); no lymph node involvement
Stage IIIB (T1–3N1M0) T1–3 with positive nodes confined to the hepatic hilus including nodes along the bile duct, hepatic artery, portal vein, and cystic duct (N1)
Stage IVA (T4N0M0) Tumor invades main portal vein or hepatic artery or invades two or more extrahepatic organs (T4); no lymph node involvement
Stage IVB (any T, any N, M1 or any T N2M0 or T4N1M0) Any T with distant metastases (M1); any T with lymph node metastases to celiac, periduodenal, peripancreatic, and/or superior mesenteric lymph nodes (N2); T4 with N1 nodes

Adapted from Edge S, Byrd D, Compton C, et al. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, 7th ed. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2010.




Diagnosis and preoperative staging




Jun 4, 2016 | Posted by in GASTROENTEROLOGY | Comments Off on Tumors of the biliary tract
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